Skip navigation

Pardee Logo International Futures at the Pardee Center

International Futures Help System

Forward Linkages


Chapter 7 of Hughes, Kuhn, Peterson, Rothman, and Solorzano (2011) elaborated the forward linkages of the health model to other parts of the IFs system at the time of that volume's completion.  It began by discussing a controversy in the literature about whether the effects on economic well-being (as indicated by GDP per capita) of improvements in life expectancy are positive or negative.  It went on to devote much attention to three major and general pathways of impact between health and GDP, each of which corresponds to a major element in standard production functions and that in IFs:  labor, capital, and multifactor productivity.  The equation documentation uses the same division and then provides some attention to potential forward linkages that do not involve those same three paths (notably the impact of health on public spending on health on the years of education attained by members of society and the quality of that education.