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Writing Center Handouts for Styles of Documentation

American Psychological Association (APA) style handout.

APA documentation style is most often used in the social sciences, including government, psychology, sociology, and education. For more APA help, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition (2009), or visit the Writing Center. See our APA Handout.

Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (CMS) handouts.

CMS offers two systems of documenting sources: the Notes System, used in the arts, history, and literature, offers information in footnotes and a bibliography; the Author-Date System, preferred in physical, natural, and social sciences, uses parenthetical citations and a reference list. Depending on your project, see our Chicago Notes handout or Chicago_Author-Date handout.

Modern Language Association (MLA) style handout.

MLA provides a standard method of academic documentation that is often used in the humanities (except history) and the fine arts. For more MLA help, use the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (2009), 7th ed., or visit the Writing Center. See our MLA handout.

Turabian Documentation Style, 7th ed. handouts.

Turabian-style resembles CMS, described above, with a few important modifications for student research papers. Like CMS, Turabian offers two "styles" for crediting sources: the Notes-Bibliography style, used in the arts, history, and literature, and the Parenthetical-Reference style, for the physical, natural, and social sciences. See our Turabian Documentation Style-Notes or Turabian Style Parenthetical Citations-Reference List.

 Handouts on Writing Processes and Genres

Writing Too Little or Too Much

Writers at all levels and stages sometimes struggle with composing concise prose or expanding compact topics. Our consultants have put together a few general strategies that writers may find helpful for revision and exposition. In addition to the Writing Too Little or Too Much handout, a supplemental handout describes steps in reverse outlining, synthesis, and invention.

Multimodal Composition

If you're writing on the web, considering new mediums for making an argument in your WRIT course, or advertising for a student group, you can gain direction from thinking of your project as a "multimodal" composition. The mixing of textual, visual and aural elements creates a multimodal text that can be analyzed in terms of form as well as content. For more information about multimodal composition, please see our Multimodal Invention handout.

Literature Reviews

Many students are called to write reviews of literature, either independently or as part of a longer project. The Literature Reviews Conventions Handout introduces common requirements and components of the "Lit. Review" genre for students in the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences. Please note that because the conventions of literature reviews vary from discipline to discipline, we advise that, as with any other assignment, you consult with your instructor for more detailed instructions and expectations.