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Josef Korbel School of International StudiesSié Chéou-Kang Center for International Security & Diplomacy



NAVCO Data Project

The Nonviolent and Violent Campaigns and Outcomes (NAVCO) Data Project is a multi-level data collection effort that catalogues major nonviolent and violent resistance campaigns around the globe from 1900-2011.





Please cite the NAVCO 1.1 Data as follows:
Erica Chenoweth. 2011. Nonviolent and Violent Campaigns and Outcomes Dataset, v. 1.1. University of Denver.

The project, which involves Korbel Professor Erica Chenoweth and Orion Lewis of Middlebury College, receives generous support from the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict.

Introducing NAVCO 2.0: Videos





Using NAVCO 2.0

Researchers can use these data to better answer questions about how tactical choices lead to the success or failure of such political movements, how inter-group relationships among competing insurgent organizations affects their strategic choices, and how the sequencing of tactical choices influence the overall outcomes of resistance campaigns.

The project produces aggregate-level data on resistance campaigns from 1900-2006 (NAVCO 1.1), annual data on campaign behavior from 1945-2006 (NAVCO 2.0) and events data on tactical selection during campaigns from 1987-2011 (NAVCO 3.0).

Methods and Aims

This data collection project seeks to look inside both nonviolent and violent campaigns, notably at the type, sequence, and outcomes of different tactics employed by unarmed civilians and armed insurgents. The project is the first of its kind to systematically explore the sequencing of tactics and their effects on the strategic outcomes of the campaigns. Variables under collection focus on:

  1. The number of groups or movements associated with the campaigns;
  2. Growth and demise of movement membership or participation;
  3. Types of tactics used, identifying several hundred possible tactics as diverse as protests, sit-ins, massive noncooperation, and internet blog postings in opposition to the regime;
  4. The sequencing of tactics used, and the outcome of sequencing on the evolution of the campaign;
  5. Full spectrum of possible regime responses, from no response to massive repression;
  6. Public sympathy or opinion toward the regimes and the campaigns;
  7. A catalogue on the inputs of external actors (such as NGOs, foreign states, and civil society groups).

Researchers use the data to analyze:

  1. The interactions between campaigns, their allies, and their opponents;
  2. How these interactions affect the strategic outcomes of the campaigns; and
  3. The long-term consequences of these outcomes of social, economic and political conditions within the country.

The findings have implications for scholars and practitioners of civil resistance.

Specific questions under inquiry include:

  1. How diverse groups maintain unity during the course of the conflict;
  2. Which organizational structures are most resilient in the face of repression;
  3. Which tactical sequences are most effective against opponent responses;
  4. The conditions under which backfire against regime responses occur (whereby regime repression recoils against it);
  5. How different types of international actors can best time their assistance to resistance groups and/or sanctions against regime; and
  6. How campaign outcomes impact long-term political, economic, and social conditions within each case.

Research Team

Research Leads:

  • Erica Chenoweth, Co-Principal Investigator, Professor and Associate Dean for Research, Josef Korbel School of International Studies
  • Orion Lewis, Co-Principal Investigator and Visiting Assistant Professor of Political Science, Middlebury College

Research Assistants:

  • Jonathan Pinckney, Sié Fellow and PhD Research Fellow
  • Chris Shay, PhD Research Fellow
  • Tom Zolot, Sié Fellow and Student Research Assistant
  • Kaelyn DeVries, Student Research Assistant
  • Emily Madcharo, Student Research Assistant