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Marsico Institute for Early Learning and Literacy

TRIAD Research

The TRIAD Project

BBLT FROM THE TRiaD PROJECT

For those looking for the BBLT (Building Blocks Learning Trajectories) web application:
Unfortunately, BBLT is no longer available. It was developed on more than 2-decade old software and will no longer run safely.
However, please see: LearningTrajectories.org as a replacement.

The TRIAD Project

For those looking for the TRIAD Scale Up research site:

                                                          TRIAD

Although the successes of research-based, visionary educational practices have been documented, equally recognized is the failure of these practices to be implemented at a scale that affects more than a trivial portion of children. Further, there may be no more challenging educational and theoretical issue than scaling up educational programs across a large number of diverse populations and contexts in the early childhood system in the U.S., avoiding the dilution and pollution that usually plagues such efforts to achieve broad success.


This is why we created and evaluated a scale-up model called TRIAD, for Technology-enhanced, Research-based, Instruction, Assessment, and professional development. The model's acronym suggests that successful scale-up must address the triad of essential components of any educational intervention and that the model is based on research and enhanced by the use of technology. However, TRIAD is a general model for scaling up varied educational interventions, based on Network of Influences framework and research on successful efforts to take such interventions to scale. Recall our definition of a successful scale up is instantiation of an intervention in varied settings with diverse populations, addressing the needs of multiple socio-political stakeholders, so as to achieve (a) satisfactory fidelity of implementation and, as a result, (b) the intervention's goals for the maximum number of children (>90% in a district), and ultimately, (c) eventual transfer of the intervention to local ownership, sustainability, persistence of effects, and continuing diffusion. In our description of the TRIAD model, we note that some processes are common to successful implementations at any scale, such as work in a single school or classroom; however, although they are helpful in most contexts, the vast majority of the processes are uniquely required for successful scale up.

 

Read about the successful TRIAD model and research in the following publications. They can be found at:

  • http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Douglas_Clements/
  • http://du.academia.edu/DouglasClements
  • Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2008). Experimental evaluation of the effects of a research-based preschool mathematics curriculum. American Educational Research Journal, 45(2), 443–494. doi: 10.3102/0002831207312908
  • Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2008, March). Scaling-up interventions: The case of mathematics. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY.
  • Sarama, J., Clements, D. H., Starkey, P., Klein, A., & Wakeley, A. (2008). Scaling up the implementation of a pre-kindergarten mathematics curriculum: Teaching for understanding with trajectories and technologies. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 1(1), 89–119. doi: 10.1080/19345740801941332
  • Sarama, J., & Clements, D. H. (2009, April). Scaling up successful interventions: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.
  • Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2011). TRIAD (Technology-enhanced, research-based instruction, assessment, and professional development) Scale-up Model. Retrieved November 13, 2011, from http://UBBuildingBlocks.org
  • Clements, D. H., Sarama, J., Spitler, M. E., Lange, A. A., & Wolfe, C. B. (2011). Mathematics learned by young children in an intervention based on learning trajectories: A large-scale cluster randomized trial. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 42(2), 127–166. doi: 10.5951/jresematheduc.42.2.0127
  • Sarama, J., Clements, D. H., Wolfe, C. B., & Spitler, M. E. (2012). Longitudinal evaluation of a scale-up model for teaching mathematics with trajectories and technologies. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 5(2), 105–135. doi: 10.1080119345747.2011,627980
  • Sarama, J., Lange, A., Clements, D. H., & Wolfe, C. B. (2012). The impacts of an early mathematics curriculum on emerging literacy and language. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(3), 489–502. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.12.002
  • Weiland, C., Wolfe, C. B., Hurwitz, M. D., Clements, D. H., Sarama, J., & Yoshikawa, H. (2012). Early mathematics assessment: Validation of the short form of a prekindergarten and kindergarten mathematics measure. Educational Psychology, 32(3), 311–333. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2011.654190
  • Clements, D. H., Sarama, J., Wolfe, C. B., & Spitler, M. E. (2013). Longitudinal evaluation of a scale-up model for teaching mathematics with trajectories and technologies: Persistence of effects in the third year. American Educational Research Journal, 50(4), 812 – 850. doi: 10.3102/0002831212469270
  • Sarama, J., & Clements, D. H. (2013). Lessons learned in the implementation of the TRIAD scale-up model: Teaching early mathematics with trajectories and technologies. In T. G. Halle, A. J. Metz & I. Martinez-Beck (Eds.), Applying implementation science in early childhood programs and systems (pp. 173–191). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
  • Clements, D. H., Sarama, J., Wolfe, C. B., & Spitler, M. E. (2015). Sustainability of a scale-up intervention in early mathematics: Longitudinal evaluation of implementation fidelity. Early Education and Development, 26(3), 427–449. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2015.968242
  • Sarama, J., & Clements, D. H. (2015). Scaling up early mathematics interventions: Transitioning with trajectories and technologies. In B. Perry, A. MacDonald & A. Gervasoni (Eds.), Mathematics and transition to school: International perspectives (pp. 153–169). New York, NY: Springer.
  • Foster, M. E., Anthony, J. L., Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2016). Improving mathematics learning of kindergarten students through computer assisted instruction. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 47(3), 206–232. doi: https://doi.org/10.5951/jresematheduc.47.3.0206
  • Nguyen, T., Watts, T. W., Duncan, G. J., Clements, D. H., Sarama, J., Wolfe, C. B., & Spitler, M. E. (2016). Which preschool mathematics competencies are most predictive of fifth grade achievement? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36, 550–560. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.02.003
  • Sarama, J., Clements, D. H., Wolfe, C. B., & Spitler, M. E. (2016). Professional development in early mathematics: Effects of an intervention based on learning trajectories on teachers' practices. Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education, 21(4), 29–55.
  • Schenke, K., Watts, T. W., Nguyen, T., Sarama, J., & Clements, D. H. (2017). Differential effects of the classroom on African American and non-African American's mathematics achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(6), 794–811.
  • Watts, T. W., Clements, D. H., Sarama, J., Wolfe, C. B., Spitler, M. E., & Bailey, D. H. (2017). Does early mathematics intervention change the processes underlying children's learning? Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(1), 96–115. doi: 10.1080/19345747.2016.1204640

 

This research was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education through Grants R305K05157 and R305A110188. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the U.S. Department of Education. Although the research is concerned with the scale-up model, not particular curricula, a minor component of the intervention used in this research has been published by the authors, who thus could have a vested interest in the results. An external auditor oversaw the research design, data collection, and analysis and other researchers independently confirmed findings and procedures. The authors wish to express appreciation to the school districts, teachers, and students who participated in this research.