The Colorado Coalfield War Archaeological Project

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Years Period Major Events
1876-1900 Establishment of the coal fields and CF&I
  • 1876 General William Palmer settles El Moro outside of Trinidad
  • 1879 General Palmer builds steel mill in Pueblo
  • 1892 Palmer's Colorado and Iron merges with John Osgood's Colorado Fuel Company forming Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. (CF&I)
1901-1912 The Sociology Department
  • 1901 Osgood organizes the Sociology Department headed by Dr. R.W. Corwin
  • 1903 Osgood loses controlling interest in CF&I to Rockefeller/Gould interests and marks beginning of cuts to Sociology Department
  • 1903-1904 Strike across Colorado 's coalfields
  • 1910 cuts to Sociology Department leave in existence in mostly just in name
  • 1912United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) organizers intensify organization efforts in Colorado 's southern coalfields
1913-1914 The Colorado Coalfield War
  • August 16, 1913- Baldwin-Felts agents hired by the coal companies assassinate union organizer Gerald Lippiatti in Trinidad
  • September 23, 1913- miners go on strike under the leadership of the UMWA
  • September 24, 1913- mine guard Bob Lee is shot to death by strikers
  • September 27, 1913, tents finally arrive at Ludlow tent colony to house strikers evicted by the coal companies
  • October 26-28, 1913- Battle of Berwind ensues as strikers attack both Berwind and Hastings coal camps
  • October 28, 1913- Governor Ammons orders the Colorado National Guard into the southern coalfields to keep the peace
  • November 1, 1913- The Colorado National Guard enters the Ludlow vicinity
  • February 1914- The US House of Representatives holds hearings investigating the causes of the strike
  • March 28, 1914- The majority of the National Guard is removed from the strike zone leaving two main units, Companies A and B. Both primarily consist of mine guards, hired guns and sheriff's deputies
  • April 20, 1914- The Ludlow Massacre. National Guard troops fire into the Ludlow colony resulting in the deaths of 20 strikers including 11 children and 2 women
  • April 21- May 1, 1914- The 10-day war. Strikers retaliate for the massacre by destroying coal camps and taking over the major urban areas in the strike zone, such as Trinidad
  • April 28, 1914- President Wilson orders Federal Troops to establish peace in the strike zone
  • 1914 US Commission on Industrial Relations investigates the causes of the strike and conditions of the camps, placing much of the blame on John D. Rockefeller, Jr.'s inaction in management
1915-ca.1930 The Rockefeller Plan
  • 1915 Rockefeller Establishes the Colorado Industrial Plan establishing a company union within CF&I
  • 1919 Strike called initially to answer workers' grievances
  • 1922 Strike called as part of national strike led by UMWA
  • 1927-1928 IWW strike to improve wages and labor conditions
  • 1928 Berwind mine closes along with most of the company services in the camp



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